File System Hierarchy (FSH)

Linux uses single-rooted, inverted tree-like file system hierarchy

/                      This is a top-level directory
It is a parent directory for all other directories
It is called as ROOT directory
It is represented by forward slash (/)
C:\ of windows

/root               it is home directory for root user (superuser)
It provides a working environment for root user
C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator

/home             it is home directory for other users
It provides a working environment for other users
c:\Documents and Settings\username

/boot              it contains bootable files for Linux
Like vmlinuz (kernel)….. ntoskrnl
Initrd (INITial Ram Disk)and
GRUB (GRand Unified Boot loader)….. boot.ini, ntldr

/etc                 it contains all configuration files
Like      /etc/passwd…..           User info
/etc/resolv.conf…      Preferred DNS
/etc/dhcpd.conf……. DHCP server

/usr                 by default soft wares are installed in /usr directory
(UNIX Sharable Resources)
c:\program files

/opt                It is optional directory for /usr
It contains third party softwares
c:\program files

/bin                 it contains commands used by all users
(Binary files)

/sbin     it contains commands used by only Super User (root)
(Super user’s binary files)

/dev                it contains device files
Like      /dev/hda         … for hard disk
/dev/cd rom    … for cd rom
Similar to device manager of windows

/proc               it contain process files
Its contents are not permanent, they keep changing
Its file contain useful information used by OS
It is also called as Virtual Directory
like      /proc/meminfo           …         information of RAM/SWAP
/proc/cpuinfo …         information of CPU

/var                 it is containing variable data like mails, log files

/mnt               it is default mount point for any partition
It is empty by default

/media            it contains all of removable media like CD-ROM, pen drive

/lib                  it contains library files which are used by OS
It is similar to dll files of windows
Library files in Linux are SO (shared object) files

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